Sounds (Phonological Awareness): ability to hear the individual sounds in words. It is an oral language skill that doesn't involve print. It sets the foundation for later reading when readers match the sounds heard with the letter or letter patterns (decoding) to read unknown words.
Alphabet and Word/Print Recognition: ability to recognize letters in random order without hesitation and eventually read sight words and high frequency words without hesitation
Decoding Skills: ability to match sounds with their correct letter or letter patterns to read unknown words
Vocabulary: ability to understand word meanings
Fluency: ability to read text accurately, quickly, and effortlessly
Reading for Meaning (Comprehension): the ability to gain meaning that is reasonable and accurate from the text